On Literary Criticism (Narratology, Rhetoric, Poetics . . .)


Jan P. Fokkelman, Reading Biblical Narrative: An Introductory Guide, Westminster John Knox, 1998. *** [Int/Beg; Main/Mod; Meth, Nar, Lit]
Tremper Longman III, Literary Approaches to Biblical Interpretation (Foundations of Contemporary Interpretation), Zondervan, 1987.
____ [Beg; Ev/Ref; Meth, Lit] ***
Kenneth R. R. Gros Louis, et al (eds.), Literary Interpretations of Biblical Narratives, Abingdon, 1974. (compilation)
________ Literary Interpretations of Biblical Narratives II, Abingdon, 1982. (compilation)

More on Canonical Literary Criticism

Walter B. Crouch, Death and Closure in Biblical Narrative (Studies in Biblical Literature, 7), Peter Lang, 2000.
Mark Ellingsen, The Integrity of Biblical Narrative: Story in Theology and Proclamation, Fortress, 1990. **
Leland Ryken and Tremper Longman III (eds.), A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible, Zondervan, 1993. [Beg; Ev; Lit; Meth] ***
Mark Allan Powell et al (eds.), The Bible and Modern Literary Criticism: A Critical Assessment and Annotated Bibliography
____(Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies, 22), Greenwood Press, 1992.
Stephen Prickett, Reading the Text: Biblical Criticism and Literary Theory, Blackwell, 1991.

S. E. Porter and T. H. Olbricht (eds.), The Rhetorical Analysis of Scripture: Essays from the 1995 London Conference (JSNT Supplement, 146),
____Sheffield Academic Press, 1997. (compilation)
varying perspectives from radical post-modern disinterest with the text except as an unblemished plot on which to project its own political feces, to conservative evangelical respect for the text as revelation.

Victor Wilson, Divine Symmetries: The Art of Biblical Rhetoric, University Press of America, 1997.
conservative perspective; explores the relationship of structure to meaning in the pattern of selected units within ten Biblical books; offers an approach to visualizing the shape of Scripture on the Bible's own terms; extensive indexes and bibliography.

Not Yet Reviewed

D. F. Tolmie, Narratology and Biblical Narratives: A Practical Guide, International Scholars Publications, 1998.

Old Testament

On Literary Approaches to Old Testament Literature

Tremper Longman III, "The Literary Approach to the Study of the Old Testament: Promise and Pitfalls," JETS 28 (1985): 385-398.
Cynthia L. Miller, "Discourse Functions of Quotative Frames in Biblical Hebrew Narrative" in in Discourse Analysis of Biblical Literature:
____ What it is and What it Offers, (SBL Semeia Series) ed. W. R. Bodine, Scholars Press, 1995: 155-182.

On Old Testament Narratology / Narrative Criticism

Recommended Books:

Robert Alter, The Art of Biblical Narrative, Basic Books, 1983. **** [Int; Main/Mod; Lit, Meth, Nar]
The World of Biblical Literature, Basic Books, 1992. *** [Int; Main; Lit, Meth, Nar]
Yairah.Amit, Hidden Polemics in Biblical Narrative, Brill Academic, 2000.
Shimon Bar-Efrat
, Narrative Art in the Bible (JSOT Sup, 70), Sheffield Academic, 2000. ****1/2 [Adv; Jew/Ac; Lit, Meth, Nar]
Adele Berlin, Poetics and the Interpretation of Biblical Narrative, Eisenbrauns, 1994. **** [Int; Jew/Mod; Lit, Meth, Nar]
Michael Fishbane, Biblical Text and Texture: A Literary Reading of Selected Texts, Schocken Books, 1998. *** [Int; Jew/Mod; Lit, Them]
Stephen A. Geller, Edward L. Greenstein, and Adele Berlin (eds.), A Sense of Text: The Art of Language in the Study of Biblical Literature
____(Jewish Quarterly Review Supplement), Eisenbrauns, 1983. (compilation)
David M. Gunn and Danna Nolan Fewell, Narrative in the Hebrew Bible, Oxford University Press, 1993. [Adv; Mod; Nar, Lit, Meth] ***
Cynthia L. Miller, The Representation of Speech in Biblical Hebrew Narrative: A Linguistic Analysis (Harvard Semitic Monograph, 55),
____Scholars Press, 1996.
Jean Louis Ska, "Our Fathers Have Told Us": Introduction to the Analysis of Hebrew Narratives (Subsidia Biblica, 13), Editrice Pontificio
____Istituto Biblico, 1990.
Meir Sternberg, The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading (Indiana Studies in Biblical Literature),
____Indiana University Press, 1987. **** [Adv; Jew/Mod; Meth, Nar, Ph]
Ellen van Wolde (ed.), Narrative Syntax and the Hebrew Bible (Biblical Interpretation Series, 29), Brill Academic, 1997. (compilation) ***1/2
____[Adv; Main/Mod; Tec; Nar; Meth]

Recommended Articles:

Luis Alonso-Schökel, "Hermeneutical Problems of a Literary Study of the Bible," Supplement to Vetus Testamentum, xxviii (1975): 1-15.
Robert Alter, "A Literary Approach to the Bible," Commentary 60 (1975): 70-77.
________ "Bibical Narrative," Commentary 61 (1976): 61-67.
Yairah Amit, "The Dual Causality Principle and its Effects on Biblical Literature," Vetus Testamentum 37 (1987): 385-400.
Shimon Bar-Efrat, "Some Observations on the Analysis of Structure in Biblical Narrative," Vetus Testamentum 30 (1980): 154-173.
Adele Berlin, "Lexical Cohesion and Biblical Interpretation," Hebrew Studies 30 (1989): 29-40.
________ "Literary Exegesis of Biblical Narrative: Between Poetics and Hermeneutics" in 'Not in Heaven': Coherence and Complexity in
____Biblical Narrative (Indiana Studies in Biblical Literature) ed. J. Rosenblatt and J. Sitterson, Indiana University Press, 1991: 120-128.
________ "On the Bible as Literature," Prooftexts 2 (1982): 323-327.
________ "Characterization in Biblical Barrative: David's Wives" in Beyond Form Criticism: Essays in Old Testament Literary Criticism
____ (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study, 2), ed. P. R. House, Eisenbrauns, 1992: 219-233.
a summary of this article may be found in the author's Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative, Eisenbrauns, 1999, pp. 23-32.

David J. A. Clines, "Story and Poem: The Old Testament as Literature and Scripture," Interpretation 34 (1980): 115-127.
L. Helyer, "Hero and Heroine Narratives in the Old Testament," Southern Bapist Journal of Theology 2 (1988): .
James L. Kugel, "On the Bible and Literary Criticism," Prooftexts 1 (1981): 217-236.

Adele Berlin, "On the Use of Traditional Jewish Exegesis in the Modern Literary Study of the Bible" in Tehillah le-Moshe (ed. M. Cogan, et al), 1997: 173-183.

Not Yet Reviewed


On Old Testament Rhetoric

Dale Patrick and Allen Scult, Rhetoric and Biblical Interpretation (JSOT Sup, 82), Sheffield Academic, 1990. **** [Adv; Mod; Lit; Txt; Ling]

On Old Testament Poetics

Luis Alonso-Schökel, A Manual of Hebrew Poetics (Subsidia Biblica, 11), Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 2000. [Adv; Mod; Lit; Txt; Ling] ****
John W. Welch (ed.), Chiasmus in Antiquity: Structures, Analyses, Exegesis, Research Press, 1999. [Int; Main/Mod; Str] ****

More on Old Testament Literary Criticism

George W. Coats, Saga, Legend, Tale, Novella, Fable: Narrative Forms in Old Testament Literature (JSOT Sup, 35), Sheffield Academic, 1986.
Paul R. House, Beyond Form Criticism: Essays in Old Testament Literary Criticism (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study, 2),
____ Eisenbrauns, 1992. (compilation)

More Books on Old Testament Narratology:

Robert C. Culley, Studies in the Structure of Hebrew Narrative, Fortress, 1976.*** [Adv; Main; Lit, Meth, Nar]
Themes and Variations: A Study of Action in Biblical Narrative (SBL Semeia Studies), Scholars Press, 1992. ***
Tal Goldfajn, Word Order and Time in Biblical Hebrew Narrative (Oxford Theological Monographs), Clarendon Press, 1988.
David Jobling, The Sense of Biblical Narrative (JSOT Sup, 7 & 39) (2 vols.), Sheffield Academic, 1987. *** [Adv; Main (+); Nar, Lit]
Martin Kessler (ed.), Voices from Amsterdam: A Modern Tradition of Reading Biblical Narrative (SBL Semeia Series), Scholars Press, 1994.
Pamela J. Milne, Vladimir Propp and the Study of Structure in Hebrew Biblical Narrative (Bible and Literature, 33), Almond Press, 1988.
Peter D. Miscall, The Workings of Old Testament Narrative (SBL Semeia Studies), Scholars Press, 1983. ** [Int; Main (+); Lit, Nar, Meth]
Jason P. Rosenblatt and Joseph C. Sitterson Jr. (eds.), Not in Heaven: Coherence and Complexity in Biblical Narrative (Indiana Studies
____in Biblical Literature), Indiana University Press, 1991. (compilation) *** [Adv; Main; Lit, Ph, Nar]
George W. Savran, Telling and Retelling: Quotation in Biblical Narrative (Indiana Studies in Biblical Narrative), Indiana University Press, 1988.
Uriel Simon, Reading Prophetic Narratives (Indiana Studies in Biblical Literature), Indiana University Press, 1997. **** [Adv; Cath/Mod; Lit,
____Nar, Meth]
Steven Weitzman, Song and Story in Biblical Narrative: The History of a Literary Convention in Ancient Israel (Indiana Studies in Biblical
____Literature), Indiana University Press, 1997. [Adv; Jew/Mod; Lit; Txt-Ling; Nar]

More Articles:

Zecharia Kallai "The Explicit and Implicit in Biblical Narrative" in Congress Volume: Paris 1992 (Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, 61), E. J. Brill,
____ 1995: 107-117.
Jonathan Magonet, "Character/Author/Reader: The Problem of Perspective in Biblical Narrative" in Literary Structure and Rhetorical Strategies
____ in the Hebrew Bible (ed. L. J. de Regt and Jan de Waard, and J. P. Fokkelman), Eisenbrauns, 1996: 3-13.

Not Yet Reviewed:

Yitshak Avishur, Studies in Biblical Narrative: Style, Structure, and Ancient Near Eastern Literary Background, Bibliotheca Persica Press, 1999.
Adele Reinhartz, Why Ask My Name? Anonymity and Identity in Biblical Narrative, Oxford University Press, 1998.
Jerome T. Walsh, Style and Structure in Biblical Hebrew Narrative, Liturgical, 2001.

More Books on Old Testament Rhetoric:

James Barr (ed.), Language and Meaning: Studies in Hebrew Language and Biblical Exegesis (Oudtestamentische Studiën), Brill Academic,
____ 1997. (compilation)
D. J. A. Clines, A. J. Hauser, and D. M. Gunn (eds.)
Art and Meaning: Rhetoric in Biblical Literature (JSOT Sup, 144), Sheffield Academic,
____1982. (compilation) *** [Adv; Main/Mod; Lit, Ling]
L. J. de Regt, J. de Waard, and J. P. Fokkelman (eds.), Literary Structure and Rhetorical Strategies in the Hebrew Bible, Eisenbrauns,
____1996. (compilation) *** [Adv; Main/Mod; Lit, Nar, Ling]

Not Yet Reviewed

Roland Meynet and Luc Racaut, Rhetorical Analysis: An Introduction to Biblical Rhetoric (JSOT Sup, 256), Sheffield Academic, 1999.

Henry Jansen, "Poetics and the Bible: Facts and Biblical Hermeneutics," Neue Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie
____41.1 (1999): 22-38.

More Books on Old Testament Poetics

Stephen Prickett (ed.), Words and the 'Word': Language, Poetics and Biblical Interpretation, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Luis Alonso Schökel, The Literary Language of the Bible, D & F Scott, 1998. ***

New Testament

On New Testament Narratology / Narrative Criticism

Jack Dean Kingsbury (ed.), Gospel Interpretation: Narrative-Critical and Social-Scientific Approaches, Trinity Press International, 1997. (compilation)
Mark Allan Powell, What is Narrative Criticism? (Guides to Biblical Scholarship), Fortress, 1991. ***1/2

Articles and Essays:

Johannes C. de Klerk, "The 'Literariness' of the New Testament Gospels," Religion & Theology 4.3 (1997): 208-219.
"Situating Biblical Narrative Studies in Literary Theory and Literary Approaches," Religion & Theology 4.3 (1997): 190-207.
Robert C. Tannehill, "The Gospels and Narrative Literature"
in The New Interpreter's Bible, vol. VIII, Abingdon, 1995.

On New Testament Rhetoric

Carl Joachim Classen, Rhetorical Criticism of the New Testament (WUNT, 128), Mohr Siebeck, 2000.
George A. Kennedy, New Testament Interpretation and Rhetorical Criticism, University of North Carolina Press, 1984. ***1/2 [Int; Mod; Txt; Ling]
S. E. Porter and D. A. Carson (eds.), Linguistics and the New Testament: Critical Junctures, Sheffield Academic Press, 1999. (compilation) ****
Duane F. Watson (ed.), Persuasive Artistry: Studies in New Testament Rhetoric in Honor of George A. Kennedy (JSNT Sup, 50),
____Sheffield Academic 1992. (compilation)

Not Yet Reviewed

C. Clifton Black, The Rhetoric of the Gospel: Theological Artistry in the Gospels and Acts, Trinity Press International, 2001.
Robert W. Funk, The Poetics of Biblical Narrative (Foundations and Facets: Literary Facets), Polebridge Press, 1988.

On New Testament Poetics

John Breck, The Shape of Biblical Language, St. Vladamir's Seminary Press, 1994. [Int; Ev; Str, Theo] ***1/2
Nils W. Lund, Chiasmus in the New Testament, Hendrickson, 1942.

Ronald E. Man, "The Value of Chiasm for New Testament Interpretation," Bibliotheca Sacra 141 (1984): 146-157.

More on New Testament Narrative Criticism

Mieke Bal (ed.) On Story-Telling: Essays in Narratology Foundations and Facets (New Testament Literary Facets), Polebridge, 1991.****
S. Hauerwas and L. G. Jones (eds.), Why Narrative? Readings in Narrative Theology, Wipf & Stock, 1997. ***

More On New Testament Rhetoric

Stanley E. Porter (ed.), A Handbook of Classical Rhetoric in the Hellenistic Period, 330 B.C. - A.D. 400, Brill Academic, 1997. ****
Duane F. Watson and A. J. Hauser
, Rhetorical Criticism of the Bible: A Comprehensive Bibliography with Notes on History & Method
____(Biblical Interpretation Series, 4), Brill Academic, 1994. (bibliography) ****

On Classical Rhetoric

G. A. Kennedy, A New History of Classical Rhetoric, Princeton University Press, 1995. ****
Edward J. Corbett, Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student, Oxford University Press, 1998. ****
R. A. Lanham, A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms, University of California Press, 1991. ****

More on Narratology (general)

Erich Auerbach, Mimesis, Princeton University Press, 1968. ****
Mieke Bal, Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative, University of Toronto Press, 1998.***
M. C. Parsons, "Reading a Beginning/Beginning a Reading: Tracing Literery Theory on Narrative Openings," Semeia 52 (1990) 11-31.
Gerald Prince, Dictionary of Narratology, University of Nebraska, 1985. ****
Claes Wahlin (ed.), Perspectives on Narratology: Papers from the Stockholm Symposium on Narratology, Peter Lang, 1998. ***
Michael Kearns, Rhetorical Narratology (Stages Series, 16), University of Nebraska Press, 1999.****
Susana Onega (ed.) Narratology: An Introduction, Addison-Wesley Pub Co., 1996. ***

On Biblical Numerology


Oswald T. Allis, Bible Numerics, Presbyterian & Reformed, 1961.
John James Davis, Biblical Numerology, Baker, 1995.


John James Davis, "The Rhetorical Use of Numbers in the Old Testament," Grace Journal 8 (1967): 40–48.
________ "Biblical Numerics," Grace Journal 5 (1964): 30–44.


Pieter F. Craffert, "Relationships between Social-Scientific, Literary, and Rhetorical Interpretation of Texts," Biblical Theology Bulletin 26 (1996): 45-55.


Michael J. Toolan, Language in Literature: An Introduction to Stylistics, Edward Arnold, 1998.
Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction, Routledge, 1989.